Brexit and Cross-Border Cooperation

Following on from my applied research work with the International Centre for Local and Regional Development (ICLRD) and conceptual work on soft spaces at HafenCity University in Hamburg, I became interested in the idea of the island of Ireland as a ‘soft space’. In a book chapter, I explored the ways in which the peace process enabled the articulation of new geographies for spatial planning and regional development on the island of Ireland. With the Brexit referendum these issues of course came to the fore as it became clear that the relational network of cross-border connectivities which had emerged over the previous two decades was at risk.

In July 2017, I posted a piece on the Ireland After Nama blog, arguing that the exit of the UK from the European Union constitutes a critical moment in Irish geography, with far-reaching consequences for the island of Ireland. I was (and continue to be) convinced that there is a strong spatial dimension to Brexit which is often overlooked in the mainstream academic and policy commentary. Brexit is fundamentally about territoriality. Brexit does not simply have geographical consequences; the act of the UK leaving the EU ruptures our taken-for-granted understandings of the position of Ireland within Europe and, in relation to the UK and, perhaps most North-South relations on the island of Ireland. Brexit is metageographical. The future of ‘European space’ is at stake. All of this makes, I believe, a persuasive case for a critical and sustained engagement by geographers and other spatially inclined thinkers with the phenomenon of Brexit and its implications, both in a critical, theoretical sense, in terms of how we understand territoriality in Europe, and in an applied in sense, in terms of addressing the challenges posed by this geopolitical moment (see also Boyle et al 2018).

Since July 2017, things have of course moved on. Yet the fundamentals have remained the same. The UK formally left the EU on 31st January 2020. Yet, Brexit continues to have a Beckettian quality. ‘Leaving’ is a gradual process and there continues to be much uncertainty concerning the end of the transition period as a substantial agreement on the future relationship seems as far off as ever. Meanwhile, the current public health crisis has prompted a return to hard borders within Europe and restrictions on movement that few would have thought possible, just a few short months ago. Once again, the ideals of the European project are tested by a crisis of existential proportions. Much depends on the willingness of EU Member States to effectively demonstrate solidarity within Europe.

In May 2018, Gavan Rafferty (Ulster University) and I convened a session at the Conference of Irish Geographers in Maynooth focused on the implications of Brexit for cross-border cooperation and spatial planning on the island of Ireland. This session drew on the expertise of the International Centre for Local and Regional Development (ICLRD) in engaging with planners, policy-makers and other stakeholders at local, regional and national levels concerned with regional development and spatial planning in the border region, North and South, in the period since the 1998 Good Friday Agreement. The papers from this session subsequently formed the backbone of a Special Issue of Irish Geography, which has been published online just this week (official publication date November 2019). The papers explore the process and practice of creating spaces for cooperation across the Irish border, pre- and post- Brexit. Drawing on both critical theoretical debates on territoriality, soft spaces and spatial imaginaries as well as applied practical experience, the papers in the special issue highlight the scope for, but also the challenges of working with the ‘island of Ireland’ as a ‘soft space’ in the context of Brexit. It is argued that soft forms of public policy, working under the radar, in the shadow of territory should continue to play a significant role post-Brexit, but that sustained institutional and political support will be required to support these informal practices.

It is hoped that this publication will foster further critical reflection and engagement on the issues it raises as the implications of Brexit for the North-South and East-West relations become clearer.

Publications from this work:

Walsh, C. (2019) Brexit Geographies: Spatial Imaginaries and Relational Territorialities on the Island of Ireland, Irish Geography, 52(2), 137-152.

Walsh, C. & Rafferty, G. (2019) (eds.) Creating Spaces for Cooperation: Crossing Borders and Boundaries before and after Brexit, Irish Geography, 52(2), 127-135.

Walsh, C., (2015) Creating a Space for Cooperation: Soft Spaces, Spatial Planning and Territorial Cooperation on the Island of Ireland. In: Allmendinger, P., Haughton, G., Knieling J., Othengrafen, F. (eds.) Soft Spaces in Europe: Re-negotiating Governance, Boundaries and Borders, London: Routledge, 192-212.

Note: some of the above text was originally published on Ireland After Nama here

A Wadden Sea Bibliography

Here, I have compiled a list of books and articles pertaining to nature-culture relations, landscape, nature conservation and coastal protection at the Wadden Sea coast. It is quite an eclectic mix, spanning history, geography, heritage studies, cultural anthropology with papers in German, English, Dutch and Danish. They all informed my own research in some way (the Danish and Dutch papers in translation).

Of course, there are many more studies with a natural science or more narrowly-focussed management approach – although as I have tried to show in my own work, these disciplinary boundaries are fluid and should be crossed where possible!

Abrahamse J. et al (hrsg.) (1976). Wattenmeer: Ein Naturraum der Niederlande, Deutschlands und Dänemarks.

Allemeyer M.L. (2006). Kein Land ohne Deich …! Lebenswelten einer Küstengesellschaft in der Frühen Neuzeit. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht GmbH.

Döring, M. & Ratter, B. (2018): Coastal landscapes: The relevance of researching coastscapes for managing coastal change in North Frisia. In: Area DOI: 10.1111/area.12382.

Döring, M. & Ratter, B. (2017): The regional framing of climate change. Towards a place-based perspective on regional climate change perception in north Frisia. In: J Coast Conservation 16 (Part A), DOI: 10.1007/s11852-016-0478-0.

Egberts, L. (2016): Voorbij de harde grens: Een cultuurhistorisch toekomstperspectief voor het Waddengebied, in Visies op de Wadden: Zes essays ten behoeve van de Beleidsverkenning Toekomstige Rol en Ambitie van het Rijk voor het Waddengebied, Leeuwarden, Waddenacadamie, S. 30-47.

Egberts, L. (2018). Moving Beyond the Hard Boundary: Overcoming the nature-culture divide in the Dutch Wadden Sea area. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, 9 (1), 62-73.

Egberts, L. & Schroor, M. Waddenland Outstanding: History, Landscape and Cultural Heritage of the Waddden Sea Region, 2018

Enemark, J., Fischer, J., and Reise, K. (2018). Protecting the Natural and Cultural Values of the Wadden Sea Coast in the Anthropocene: An Urgent Call for Integration. In L. Egberts & M. Schroor (Eds.), Waddenland Outstanding: History, Landscape and Cultural Heritage of the Wadden Sea Region (pp. 67-80). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9789048537884-005.

Fischer, L. (2007). Cultural landscape and a natural landscape – notes with regard to the Wadden Sea region Wilhelmshaven 19 June 2007

Fischer, L. (2011). Küste – Von der Realität eines mentalen Konzepts. In L. Fischer & K. Reise (Eds.), Küstenmentalität und Klimawandel: Küstenwandel als kulturelle und soziale Herausforderung (pp. 31–54). München: Oekom Verlag.

Freriks, K. (2015): De kleuren van het wad, an bedreigde zee tot werelderfgoed, Axes: Koninklijke Van Gorcum b.v.

Gemeinsamen Wattenmeer Sekretariat (2005): (hrsg.) Das Wattenmeer: Kulturlandschaft vor und hinter den Deichen, Wilhelmshaven: CWSS (Einleitung, 14-39).

Göldner, L., 1999. The German Wadden Sea coast: reclamation and environmental pro- tection. J. Coast Conserv. 5, 23–30.

Husum Marboe, A. (2010): Nutzung und Schutz maritimer Ressourcen im dänischen Wattenmeer 1900-1960, in Rheinheimer, M. (hrsg.) Mensch Und Meer in Der Geschichte Schleswig-holsteins und Süddänemarks, Kiel: Wachholtz Verlag, S. 357-370.

Jensen, C. (2007): Det fremskudte dige : om italesættelsen af Vadehavet som et naturens sted, Sjæk’len, Esbjerg: Fiskeri- og Søfartsmuseet Saltvantakvariet, S. 143-161, verfügbar über https://fimus.dk/sjaeklen-e-bog/, zugegriffen 16.12.2019.

Jensen, C. (2015): Vadehavsforeningen fylder rundt, , Sjæk’len, Esbjerg: Fiskeri- og Søfartsmuseet Saltvantakvariet, S. 129-143, verfügbar über https://fimus.dk/sjaeklen-e-bog/, zugegriffen 16.12.2019.

Jensen, C., and Hansen, H.P. (2008). Arven fra Vadehavet. In J. Holm, , L. K. Petersen, J. Laessoe, A. Remmen and , C. J. Hansen (Eds), Oekologisk modernisiering pa Dansk- Brud og bevaegelser i miljoindsatsen (pp. 187-218). Copenhagen: Frydenlund.

Krauß, W. (2005). The natural and cultural landscape heritage of Northern Friesland. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 11, 39–52.

Krauß, W. (2008). Die goldene Ringelgansfeder: Dingpolitik an der Nordseeküste, in Georg Kneer/Marcus Schroer/Erhard Schüttpelz (Hg.): Bruno Latours Kollektive. Kontroversen zur Entgrenzung des Sozialen, Frankfurt a.M., Suhrkamp, pp 425-457.

Krauß, W. (2010). The ‘Dingpolitik’ of Wind Energy in Northern German Landscapes: An Ethnographic Case Study. Landscape Research, 35(2), 195-208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01426390903557972

Krauß, W. & Döring, M. (2003): Zwischen Globalismus und Populismus: Die Debatte um die Anmeldung des Wattenmeers als UNESCO-Welterbe. In Döring, M., Engelhardt, G., Feindt, P. and Oßenbrügge, J. (hrsg.), Stadt-Raum-Natur: Die Metropole als politisch konstruierter Raum, 135-150. Hamburg: University Press.

Meier, D. et al (2013): Der Küstenatlas: Das Schleswig-holsteinische Wat- tenmeer in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart.

Meier, D. (2010): Weltnaturerbe Wattenmeer: Kulturlandschaft ohne Grenzen, 2010

Quedens, G. (2010): Nordsee – Mordsee, 2010.

Ratter, B. M. W., & Gee, K. (2012). Heimat – a German concept of regional perception and identity as a basis for coastal management in the Wadden Sea. Ocean & Coastal Management, 68S, 127–137.

Reise, K. (2015). Kurswechsel Küste: Was tun, wenn die Nordsee steigt?. Hamburg: Murmann.

Reise, K., 2014. A Natural History of the Wadden Sea: Riddled by Contingencies, Wilhelmshaven Common Wadden Sea Secretariat.

Ritson, K. (2019). The Shifting Sands of the North Sea Lowlands: Literary and Historical Imaginaries, London: Routledge.

Schmitt, L. Klima, Raum und Zeit im Wandel: Eine ethnographische Untersuchung von Adaptationen und Konflikten auf der westfriesischen Insel Ameland, 2015

Striegnitz, M. (2006): Conflicts over coastal protection in a National Park: Mediation and negotiated law making, Land Use Policy, 23(1), 26-33.

Svennevig, I. (1997): Local peoples of the Western World – the introduction of local cultures in the Wadden Sea area, in Arler, F. & Svennevig, I. (hrsg.) Cross-Cultural Protection of Nature and the Environment, Odense: Odense University Press, S. 148-160.

Van der Linde, I. (2008): De Slag om de Waddenzee: Een terugblik op vijf jaar politieke strijd, Amsterdam: IMSA Amsterdam.

Wilken, M. et al. Deiche und Deichachten in der Krummhörn: Ostfriesland im Schutze des Deiches XII, 2003

Wöbse, A.-K., 2017. Space, Place, Land and Sea: The Ecological ‘Discovery’ of the Global Wadden Sea. In: de Bont, R., Lachmund, L. (Eds.), Spatialiszing the History of Ecology: Sites, Journeys, Mappings. Routledge, London/New York, pp. 204–222.

Ziemek, H.P. (2014). “Großreservat Halligmeer” – einer der ersten Versuche zur Gründung eines Nationalparks in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Natur und Landschaft, 89(4), 151-158. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17433/4.2014.50153266.151-158

Egberts, L. (2016): Voorbij de harde grens: Een cultuurhistorisch toekomstperspectief voor het Waddengebied, in Visies op de Wadden: Zes essays ten behoeve van de Beleidsverkenning Toekomstige Rol en Ambitie van het Rijk voor het Waddengebied, Leeuwarden, Waddenacadamie, S. 30-47.

Egberts, L. (2018). Moving Beyond the Hard Boundary: Overcoming the nature-culture divide in the Dutch Wadden Sea area. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, 9 (1), 62-73.

Egberts, L. & Schroor, M. (2018). Waddenland Outstanding: History, Landscape and Cultural Heritage of the Waddden Sea Region.

Enemark, J., Fischer, J., and Reise, K. (2018). Protecting the Natural and Cultural Values of the Wadden Sea Coast in the Anthropocene: An Urgent Call for Integration. In L. Egberts & M. Schroor (Eds.), Waddenland Outstanding: History, Landscape and Cultural Heritage of the Wadden Sea Region (pp. 67-80). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9789048537884-005.

Fischer, L. (2007). Cultural landscape and a natural landscape – notes with regard to the Wadden Sea region Wilhelmshaven 19 June 2007

Fischer, L. (2011). Küste – Von der Realität eines mentalen Konzepts. In L. Fischer & K. Reise (Eds.), Küstenmentalität und Klimawandel: Küstenwandel als kulturelle und soziale Herausforderung (pp. 31–54). München: Oekom Verlag.

Freriks, K. (2015): De kleuren van het wad, an bedreigde zee tot werelderfgoed, Axes: Koninklijke Van Gorcum b.v.

Gemeinsamen Wattenmeer Sekretariat (2005): (hrsg.) Das Wattenmeer: Kulturlandschaft vor und hinter den Deichen, Wilhelmshaven: CWSS (Einleitung, 14-39).

Göldner, L., 1999. The German Wadden Sea coast: reclamation and environmental pro- tection. J. Coast Conserv. 5, 23–30.

Husum Marboe, A. (2010): Nutzung und Schutz maritimer Ressourcen im dänischen Wattenmeer 1900-1960, in Rheinheimer, M. (hrsg.) Mensch Und Meer in Der Geschichte Schleswig-holsteins und Süddänemarks, Kiel: Wachholtz Verlag, S. 357-370.

Jensen, C. (2007): Det fremskudte dige : om italesættelsen af Vadehavet som et naturens sted, Sjæk’len, Esbjerg: Fiskeri- og Søfartsmuseet Saltvantakvariet, S. 143-161, verfügbar über https://fimus.dk/sjaeklen-e-bog/, zugegriffen 16.12.2019.

Jensen, C. (2015): Vadehavsforeningen fylder rundt, , Sjæk’len, Esbjerg: Fiskeri- og Søfartsmuseet Saltvantakvariet, S. 129-143, verfügbar über https://fimus.dk/sjaeklen-e-bog/, zugegriffen 16.12.2019.

Jensen, C., and Hansen, H.P. (2008). Arven fra Vadehavet. In J. Holm, , L. K. Petersen, J. Laessoe, A. Remmen and , C. J. Hansen (Eds), Oekologisk modernisiering pa Dansk- Brud og bevaegelser i miljoindsatsen (pp. 187-218). Copenhagen: Frydenlund.

Krauß, W. (2005). The natural and cultural landscape heritage of Northern Friesland. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 11, 39–52.

Krauß, W. (2008). Die goldene Ringelgansfeder: Dingpolitik an der Nordseeküste, in Georg Kneer/Marcus Schroer/Erhard Schüttpelz (Hg.): Bruno Latours Kollektive. Kontroversen zur Entgrenzung des Sozialen, Frankfurt a.M., Suhrkamp, pp 425-457.

Krauß, W. (2010). The ‘Dingpolitik’ of Wind Energy in Northern German Landscapes: An Ethnographic Case Study. Landscape Research, 35(2), 195-208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01426390903557972

Krauß, W. & Döring, M. (2003): Zwischen Globalismus und Populismus: Die Debatte um die Anmeldung des Wattenmeers als UNESCO-Welterbe. In Döring, M., Engelhardt, G., Feindt, P. and Oßenbrügge, J. (hrsg.), Stadt-Raum-Natur: Die Metropole als politisch konstruierter Raum, 135-150. Hamburg: University Press.

Meier, D. et al (2013): Der Küstenatlas: Das Schleswig-holsteinische Wat- tenmeer in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart.

Meier, D. (2010): Weltnaturerbe Wattenmeer: Kulturlandschaft ohne Grenzen.

Quedens, G. (2010): Nordsee – Mordsee.

Ratter, B. M. W., & Gee, K. (2012). Heimat – a German concept of regional perception and identity as a basis for coastal management in the Wadden Sea. Ocean & Coastal Management, 68S, 127–137.

Reise, K. (2015). Kurswechsel Küste: Was tun, wenn die Nordsee steigt?. Hamburg: Murmann.

Reise, K., (2014). A Natural History of the Wadden Sea: Riddled by Contingencies, Wilhelmshaven Common Wadden Sea Secretariat.

Ritson, K. (2019). The Shifting Sands of the North Sea Lowlands: Literary and Historical Imaginaries, London: Routledge.

Schmitt, L. (2015) Klima, Raum und Zeit im Wandel: Eine ethnographische Untersuchung von Adaptationen und Konflikten auf der westfriesischen Insel Ameland.

Striegnitz, M. (2006): Conflicts over coastal protection in a National Park: Mediation and negotiated law making, Land Use Policy, 23(1), 26-33.

Svennevig, I. (1997): Local peoples of the Western World – the introduction of local cultures in the Wadden Sea area, in Arler, F. & Svennevig, I. (hrsg.) Cross-Cultural Protection of Nature and the Environment, Odense: Odense University Press, S. 148-160.

Van der Linde, I. (2008): De Slag om de Waddenzee: Een terugblik op vijf jaar politieke strijd, Amsterdam: IMSA Amsterdam.

Wilken, M. et al. (2013) Deiche und Deichachten in der Krummhörn: Ostfriesland im Schutze des Deiches XII,

Wöbse, A.-K., 2017. Space, Place, Land and Sea: The Ecological ‘Discovery’ of the Global Wadden Sea. In: de Bont, R., Lachmund, L. (Eds.), Spatialiszing the History of Ecology: Sites, Journeys, Mappings. Routledge, London/New York, pp. 204–222.

Ziemek, H.P. (2014). “Großreservat Halligmeer” – einer der ersten Versuche zur Gründung eines Nationalparks in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Natur und Landschaft, 89(4), 151-158. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17433/4.2014.50153266.151-158

 

 

New Paper: Metageographies of coastal management: negotiating spaces of nature and culture at the Wadden Sea

Walsh, C. Metageographies of coastal management: negotiating spaces of nature and culture at the Wadden Sea, Area, doi: 10.1111/area.12404

This paper forms part of a forthcoming Special Section for Area guest edited by Martin Döring and myself. Most of the papers stemmed from the research workshop: “Managing Coastal Change and Climate Vulnerability: Questions of Place, Space and Landscape” (Hamburg Ocotber 2015). The paper is draws on case study research at the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea coast, centred around the Wadden Sea 2100 climate adaption strategy adopted the state government of Schleswig-Holstein in 2015. Continue reading “New Paper: Metageographies of coastal management: negotiating spaces of nature and culture at the Wadden Sea”